Sendai celebrates SkyTrain technology with opening of new Tozai Line

Sendai celebrates SkyTrain technology with opening of new Tozai Line

sendai-map
Sendai Subway map showing the new Tozai Line (east-west line in blue)

The sun is rising over a quiet city, where the lights inside 13 new rapid transit stations turn on and the first station staff make their way down the relatively unused escalators to prepare to open the platforms for the first wave of customers.

The familiar hum of a linear induction motor system populates the station as the first of 15 four-car trains rolls in from the maintenance yard, ready to board passengers for the first service of the day.

If you think I’m describing an event in Vancouver, you would be wrong because I am describing what’s happening right now in a major Japanese city, one that decided to build a brand new rapid transit line with the same SkyTrain technology developed in Canada and pioneered here in Vancouver.

See: New subway line opens in disaster-hit Sendai – The Japan Times

Sendai, Japan is the city that was hit hard during the March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. The completion of the new Tozai Line, a 14km rapid transit subway with both underground and elevated stations, has turned the page for the city, marking its vibrance and prosperity as it progresses in its recovery from the devastation of 4 years ago.

I went back to Sendai for a business trip, and it also happened to be the day the Tozai line opened to the public. It was crazy! The city and its people are treating it like a big event!
-Ryukyurhymer from Skyscrapercity (LINK)

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Videos and photos of the launch celebrations show thousands of people making use of the new system, and celebrations ranging from idol girl groups performing on the station platforms, local sports team mascots out to celebrate, men in samurai outfits, traditional dance performances on board the trains, and picnics at the park beside the train’s visible elevated section. It is a lively hustle and bustle and the mood appears to be as festive as when I visited Sendai just 4 months ago to attend the city’s most famous Tanabata Festival, as part of my 1-year Japan studies journey. It is arguably the biggest occurrence in the city since this August and the biggest revolution for the city since the first steps in recovery were made after 2011.

Pictures from TransLink of mockup Mark III Skytrain vehicle
SkyTrain technology was developed in Canada and pioneered right here in Vancouver.

Since the first km of demonstration track opened in early 1983 here in Vancouver, SkyTrain technology has made its way around the world with just over 20 systems complete or being proposed in 15 cities worldwide. We have reinvested in it and expanded our system several times, yet we’ve been overtaken by a certain Guangzhou, China that has made a monstrous investment in this technology with over 99km of track – reaching 130km by next year.

Sendai’s will to revitalize their city with the help of a technology pioneered here in Vancouver, Canada should be seen as a wonderful treat and a mark of our contributions to this technology’s progress, and a reminder of the big impacts we can make with choices that we would otherwise deem irrelevant. Sendai’s choice of SkyTrain technology will help the city fast-track its ongoing recovery from the events of 4 years ago.

The line will serve 80,000 riders a day next year, with an additional 3% more estimated to come each year and grow the system’s ridership. According to the schedule on the city’s website, trains will run every 3-4 minutes during peak hours and no less frequently than every 7.5 minutes at off-peak times and weekends – an excellent service standard for a medium-sized city of 1 million people.

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The new line is already enabling new transit-oriented development nodes in the city, maximizing the line’s potential and giving a nod to the transit-oriented development practices that Greater Vancouver pioneered for every city in North America.

In an area around Arai Station, work to establish a new community of nearly 20,000 people is progressing. Public apartments have been built for those affected by the tsunami, with people moving there from areas closer to the Pacific coast as part of a collective relocation program. (The Japan Times)

We should celebrate a technology that’s made an impact around the world

As a result of the practical research for three years from Fiscal 1985, we confirmed that low-cost subway “Linear Metro” that has been developed as a public transport is suitable for regional hub city as a semi-main metropolitan line or branch line. For this reason, the Japan Subway Association established the “Linear Metro Promotion Headquarters” within the association in October 1988.

ml98pr_fig2
Comparison of conventional subways and linear motor subways. From Osaka Municipal Transportation Bureau’s info page on LIM technology

Japanese researchers started studying linear induction motors (LIMs) as train propulsion in 1985. After Osaka built Japan’s first LIM line (the Nagahori Tsurumi-Ryokuchi line), it was found that the city had saved approximately 20% in construction costs. This is one of the key advantages that come with LIMs – the less-complicated motors enable trains to have lower platform heights, which  means tunnels can be significantly smaller and less costly without impacting the quality of service. There is no doubt that with the majority of Sendai’s new subway line tunneled, millions in cost savings were found with the use of SkyTrain technology.

This same advantage was directly to blame for the use of an existing railway tunnel on our Expo Line SkyTrain downtown, a choice that saved us hundreds of millions of dollars as a traditional light rail system would have required new and larger tunnels to be dug under our downtown core.

“The new line is a symbol of development for the disaster-hit Arai district. I hope the Tozai Line will play a major role in leading the city.”
– Emiko Okuyama, Mayor of Sendai (The Japan Times)

See also: List of Linear induction motor rapid transit systems

Sendai’s system brings the amount of in-service SkyTrain technology systems from 17 to 18. 14 cities/areas are currently using SkyTrain technology, and a 15th (Okinawa Island, also in Japan) has declared its use for a major future transit investment.

I am pleased to hear about and report on this successful launch, and I encourage all of us in Vancouver to cheer this Japanese city and its people in celebrating a brand new era of progress and motion.

Local news report (Japanese)

Watch trains arrive and depart at Sendai Central Station

We can learn from Japan on transit delays/incidents

We can learn from Japan on transit delays/incidents

Video shows that in Japan, even the train evacuations are orderly 【RocketNews24】

As reliable as Japan’s public transportation system is, with so many trains running from morning to night, eventually some sort of problem is going to occur. Passengers heading to work or school in central Kobe had their commute interrupted at approximately 8 a.m. on November 16, when it was discovered that an overhead line had snapped on the Japan Railways (JR) Kobe Line between Kobe and Motomachi Stations.

Seeing that the repairs would take some time to complete, some 5,000 passengers were instructed to leave the carriages, which were stopped in an empty stretch of the tracks, and walk to the nearest station, as directed by JR staff who were on the scene.

Even in Japan, which is known for having one of the world’s supposedly most “punctual” train systems, delays and incidents can occur. Last week in Kobe, this was the scene on the city’s main JR rapid transit line after an incident with an overhead power-line was found, requiring a full shut-down of the system in Kobe and service disruptions throughout the 194km-long intercity rapid transit line.

If this sounds familiar, that’s because it does resemble some of the incidents that have plagued our SkyTrain system here in Metro Vancouver over the past few years.

I’m also sure many of you are aware of what happened to the SkyTrain yesterday (November 24th), when it was shut down in downtown due to a “power failure” incident that turned out to be a ‘one-in-a-million’ misplaced replacement rail part that moved on the tracks and struck/damaged the power shoe of an oncoming train.

Map of JR train lines in the Osaka/Kansai area. The blue line going west-east from Himeji to Maibara through Kobe, Osaka and Kyoto was the line affected.
[OPEN to enlarge] Map of JR train lines in the Osaka/Kansai area. The blue line from Himeji in the west to Maibara in the east was the line affected.
I was in Japan last week and happened to actually experience the Kobe incident in the video at the top of this post, although I wasn’t in Kobe when it occurred. Instead, I felt the ripple effects over 140km away at Maibara Station, on the eastern end of the line, as I transferred from another train from Nagoya intending to ride this particular line en route to Kyoto.

The featured photo at the very top of this post is my own picture of the “trains delayed” notice display I ran into when I arrived at Maibara Station. I could feel my stomach churn even more when I checked the departure time-boards on the station platform itself, which showed that westbound express trains had been completely cancelled.

This left me and perhaps several hundred other passengers waiting on the platform before having to crowd onto a smaller local train, which we would ride until another station down the line (Yasu) where express trains would re-commence. The incident was uncomfortable, cost me nearly 90 minutes in delay and had a major effect on my plans for the day.

This is, incidentally, longer than the approx. 60 minute delay I experienced yesterday when I was caught in yesterday’s SkyTrain delay. I started commuting from Surrey to the Main St. Station area to fulfill an errand, right after delays began at around 2:50PM. I went through stopped trains, crowdedness of the trains and crowded-ness again when I boarded a replacement shuttle bus at Commercial-Broadway Station.

SkyTrain has been through numerous shutdowns in the past year, which many have attributed to be an issue of system reliability. In actuality, many of them the result of the lack of an auto-restart system that was neglected by BC Transit in the 1990s; some of them were genuinely due to human error; and some of them just couldn’t be prevented no matter what anyone did.

Regardless of the cause, we don’t seem to handle these very well. Doors have been broken open, resulting in people walking on the tracks unauthorized and causing further delays as track power needs to be shut down. People tend to respond loudly and angrily on social media, not waiting for the investigation to blame TransLink on whatever happens.

There’s a lot that we can learn from the Japanese when incidents like these happen. In Japan, trains are so critical to the functions of life, responsible for moving millions of people every day in a very dense country. Punctuality is considered very important, and so train operators concentrate on providing the best service possible when everything is working. It’s important to understand that things can sometimes not work – and when that happens, instructions have to be followed and anger has to be calmed. Which is why the train evacuations showcased in the video were so smooth and orderly.

This train line didn't have emergency walkways at door-level like our SkyTrain system - so passengers had to climb down ladders to get onto the track.
This train line didn’t have emergency walkways at door-level like our SkyTrain system – so passengers had to climb down ladders to get onto the track.

The most important thing to remember is that at the end of the day, these incidents don’t actually happen that often – SkyTrain has maintained a statistical reliability that tops transit systems in other cities. I pride myself over having kept myself calm throughout yesterday, and hope that other passengers who were able to do the same do so as well.

See also: Vancouverites are Spoiled with SkyTrain – Vancity Buzz

We can’t let these incidents affect the way we think about transit and play our part in shaping major transit decisions, like the recent NO vote on the regional transit referendum. It’s easy to lose sight of the facts when you’re inconvenienced and made bitter, but at the end of the day, in doing you really aren’t helping anyone.

I’m noticing many commuters on Twitter talking about how reluctant they were to take SkyTrain today. If I had let the incident from last week stop me from using the JR train line again out of fear, I wouldn’t have been able to resume with my plans to visit Himeji Castle and take these gorgeous pictures….

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Lastly, here’s a bit from the Rocketnews article that perhaps TransLink could take from for next time…

…we think what really sealed the deal is the Japan Railways representative who shows up on the platform at the video’s 0:27 mark, ready to apologize to those who were inconvenienced and hook them up with bottles of tea, which he opens for each person who walks by. Because hey, on the occasions when you can’t be punctual, you may as well be classy.

Man tea 1

Return to blogging: Life after 1 year in Japan

Return to blogging: Life after 1 year in Japan

Pictured above: A Compass card next to my personalized SUICA, the IC card used on Tokyo’s transit network.

I neglected to make a formal announcement on this blog before I left, but I’m sure many of you were following me this past year for my journeys in one of the most transit-developed countries in the world. My opportunity to live in this country came with a scholarship study program that I was admitted to last year, and brought with it a form of excitement in terms of not only getting to lived in a country I had dreamed of visiting for personal interest reasons, as well as further my personal ambitions – but to see what I could take back from a country that has developed what may perhaps be the world’s best, most comprehensive transportation network.

As a student without a lot of money (apart from my scholarship money) there wasn’t really a lot to expect, and I didn’t think I would make it much further than destinations near my hometown in Nagasaki prefecture – but I was determined to make it more than just a matter of staying in one city and picking up another language. Fortunately, I was proved wrong and it was thanks to the country’s excellent transportation system.

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With the 3rd biggest domestic flight market in the world, the expenses of domestic air travel had dropped to the point where you could fly to other cities with just a few hours of earnings on minimum wage – this materialized for me in January when I was able to book no less than 7 individual flights with an airline for under $200 CAD. Train operators offered deals like the JR Seishun 18 Pass and Kintetsu Rail Pass that helped me cut down on the costs of intercity travel. All in all I was able to amass more than 10 weeks of travel experience, reaching all of the country’s biggest cities, and numerous areas in-between. I did this all with only the resources I had in my pocket and no drivers’ license, no car and no need for taxis to fill the gaps.

For a country with one of the world’s most prominent and largest automobile industries in the world, car usage in Japan is surprisingly low. The Japanese have lived with a built-in culture of utilizing transit options, boosted heavily by the small size and relative density enabling the inexpensive construction of nationwide train networks.

In my view, after a year of experiencing the country, Japan’s transportation excellence primarily comes from its advantageously small size, and its commitment to keeping transit networks around.  There are few areas in North America with the same kind of supporting density as can be found throughout this East Asian country, and you won’t be surprised to find that these areas also have well-built inter-city and intra-city train and transit systems. Many of the rapid transit train lines you’ll find in cities have been around for anywhere between 50 and 100 years, built in advance of developments with developments and communities orienting themselves around transit lines. Stations are meeting places, and are often community hubs with large pick-up and drop-off places and a large congregation of businesses. Often these businesses are built into the station itself.

Plaza 88's shopping district is directly integrated with SkyTrain's New Wetminster Station, and reminds me of a small-sized Japanese community hub. Photo: Foodology.ca
In Metro Vancouver, the Plaza 88 shopping district is directly integrated with SkyTrain’s New Wetminster Station, reminiscent of a small-sized Japanese community hub. Photo: Foodology.ca

We have a few examples of that here in Vancouver, the most prominent being the newly built Plaza 88 and Shops at New West Station, and I would really like to see more of them. Japanese cities have mastered the maximization of the accessibility of a train station. In large cities like Tokyo, major train stations are built under or adjacent to massive, 10-story shopping malls with every single service you can find. Businesses, including shops and restaurants, can set up their shops/restaurants at fewer locations than you would expect, because it’s fast and easy to get there from anywhere in the city. Many smaller businesses set up shop only at or near the busiest train stations, yet have no problem reaching and catering to a large amount of people from faraway places. The versatility, flexibility and cost-savings in having transit has proven to be a strong driver in Japan’s consumer economy.

Akihabara, which is famous for being Tokyo's pop culture district, is located at the intersection of two major train lines. The station itself has several stories of shops steps away from train platforms - and in the surrounding area, stores that cater to anime, manga and pop-culture fans don't tend to exist anywhere other than Akihabara because they don't need to. Akihabara is a community that is truly made possible by transit. (Taken by myself on Aug 4, 2015)
Akihabara, which is famous for being Tokyo’s pop culture district, is located at the intersection of two major train lines. The station itself has several stories of shops steps away from train platforms – and in the surrounding area, stores that cater to anime, manga and pop-culture fans don’t tend to exist anywhere other than Akihabara because they don’t need to. Akihabara and its culture is made possible by high-quality transit. (Taken by myself on Aug 4, 2015)

Japan is famous for not only its trains and what its trains have made possible, but also for its railway innovations and pioneers. The “Shinkansen” or “bullet train” was the world’s first high speed rail system between Tokyo and Osaka, which is now the busiest line in the country and is in the process of being replaced by a 600km/h maglev.

Big cities in Japan have extensive transit systems supported by trains that run skip-stop “express” and local services on the same track, carefully timed to the second, with coordinated transfers between those services to maximize passenger flow and minimize travel time.

Osaka's Nagahori-Tsurumi-Ryokuchi line was the first of numerous linear motor train lines.
Osaka’s Nagahori-Tsurumi-Ryokuchi line was the first of numerous linear motor train lines. During my Osaka trips I usually stayed with family adjacent to a station on this particular line.

In addition to pioneering the systems that have been popularized in other countries, Japanese planners are keen to pay attention to trends from abroad. When our SkyTrain system in Vancouver opened in 1986, it was one of the most innovative transit systems in the world. Many Japanese cities have borrowed the same “SkyTrain technology” we use, best characterized by the linear motor rail in the centre of the track, in high-capacity, big-city subway systems – taking advantage of the tighter radius curves and smaller tunnels to save trillions of Yen in public transit projects.

See also: List of Linear Induction Motor rapid transit systems

Japanese cities have used linear motor propulsion on nearly every subway line built since the 1990s – all of which I have visited during my 1 year stay. In many of the cities the trains are of a newer-generation than the ones used here in SkyTrain. Fukuoka’s Nanakuma Lines trains are not only well-built and modern, but surprisingly quiet going through tunnels.

The latest system, the “Tozai Line” in Sendai, will be opening this December, and will revitalize transit and tourism in a city which in my experience was comparatively lacklustre with its supporting buses.

All in all I enjoyed fulfilling my objectives, especially in transit research. Returning to Canada was a challenge in my realization that many of the Japanese lifestyle things I enjoyed cannot be found in Canada. There’s a lot to say about my time in Japan and how I viewed particular aspects in transit planning topics, but that’s a discussion I’ll be saving for later. I look forward to returning to active blogging on both Metro Vancouver and Japan topics.

Photo of myself at Osaka's Shinsekai district. Taken Jan 2015.
Photo of myself at Shinsekai, one of the many pedestrian-only districts in Osaka; in the background is the famous Tsutentaku Tower. Taken Jan 2015.

SkyTrain technology declared for 60km outer belt metro in Tokyo

SkyTrain technology declared for 60km outer belt metro in Tokyo

“SkyTrain technology” (linear motor propulsion, with automated operation) has been declared for a major investment in rail rapid transit in the outer boroughs of the city of Tokyo, Japan – the world’s largest metropolitan area with over 38 million people residing.

Map: Proposed "Metro 7" and "Eight Liner" rapid transit line circling outer Tokyo. The Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation wants to use SkyTrain technology to reduce the project costs of this transit line.
Map: Proposed “Metro 7” and “Eight Liner” rapid transit line circling outer Tokyo, which will run under the city’s 7th and 8th Ring Roads. The Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation wants to use SkyTrain technology to reduce the project costs of this transit line.

The proposed lines – initially two separate projects codenamed “Metro Seven” and “Eight Liner” – will be merged into a single project that is 59.7km long, with 42 stations.

There is an additional 13.7km extension to Tokyo’s Haneda Airport (bringing the total project length to a whooping 73.4km) under consideration. It has not been finalized as part of this proposal and is pending further study, likely given that other Haneda-oriented rail projects are currently being considered by other operators.

Case study

I was given a link to a study on the Itabashi ward website, which concluded that the use of SkyTrain technology would significantly save costs and improve the project business case, due to significant reductions in tunneling and land acquisition costs.

LINK: 平成25年 – 度区部周辺部環状公共交通に係る調査 – 概報告
English: 2013 Fiscal –Outer Ward Circumferential Public Transit Study – Summary Report

The Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation (Toei) has proposed to build and operate the subway line with public funds, a rarity in a country where most major railways are built and operated by private companies.

Linear Motors Save Costs

The new metro line in Tokyo will use a new specification called “Smart Linear Metro“, which is identical to the 69km SkyTrain technology railway line proposed in Okinawa. Short, 12m long cars – similar to Vancouver’s Mark I SkyTrain vehicles – will enable a further reduction in tunnelling height, curve radius and land costs compared to 16m long “standard linear metro” cars already in use in Fukuoka, Yokohama, Kobe and other cities, which themselves allow for smaller tunnels than standard 20m rotary propulsion metro cars. To enable the high carrying capacity required for a Tokyo metro line, multiple-car, articluated units will be used.

Through the reduction in tunnelling and land acquisition costs – made possible by the key advantages of linear motor propulsion in lower floor heights and tighter curve radii – the use of SkyTrain technology is estimated to save taxpayers the equivalent of $300 million Canadian dollars.

Slides from the case study (tap to enlarge):

Trains will initially operate every 3 minutes during peak times on the higher-demand western segment, whereas a 5 minute frequency will be used on the eastern segment.

Popular in Japan

Japan is one of the world countries that has recognized the benefits of SkyTrain technology and pushes a widespread application of SkyTrain technology in every new railway project. There are now 9 lines in 6 cities running, under construction or under consideration. The new circumferential line will be the 9th such line in Japan, and the 20th such line in the world.

The Toei Oedo subway has been operating since 1991, and had one extension in 2001.
The Toei Oedo subway has been operating since 1991 and is one of the busiest Tokyo subway lines.

Toei has previously demonstrated SkyTrain technology successfully on the Toei Oedo Line, a major Tokyo subway line with a ridership of over 850,000 passengers daily. The Oedo Line has operated successfully for over 23 years. It’s no surprise that with this record, Toei would want to build another such line.

See also: List of Linear Induction Motor Rapid Transit Systems

New SkyTrain technology metro in Sendai, Japan opens 2015

New SkyTrain technology metro in Sendai, Japan opens 2015
sendai-map
Sendai Subway map showing the new Tozai Line (east-west line in blue)

A brand new rail rapid transit line in Sendai, Japan – which is using linear induction motor propulsion technology (“SkyTrain technology”) – is on track to open next year (2015), with final construction activities and train testing underway. The Tozai Line will be 14km long, and feature a mix of underground and elevated sections.

The use of SkyTrain technology is now confirmed by more than a concept photo, as the linear-motor rolling stock has arrived and pictures have surfaced showing linear motors on the subway track. These initial trains have passed their testing, keeping the line on-track to open exactly one year from now on December 6, 2015.

A new video featuring the rail transit project, showing the unveiling of the SkyTrain-tech rolling stock and construction progress, was recently updated to YouTube. As part of these unveilings, school children were allowed to be a part of the event, inspiring a future generation of transit riders.

New construction photos of the Sendai Subway’s Tozai Line has recently hit the internet. The photos below were posted on the official project Facebook page:

The Tozai Line was originally scheduled to open much earlier, but construction was delayed by the devastating 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami, which heavily damaged much of the city. The new subway line will therefore be part of the revitalization movement for Sendai City.

Japan is one of the world countries that has recognized the benefits of SkyTrain technology and pushes a widespread application of SkyTrain technology in every new railway project. There are now 8 lines in 6 cities running, under construction or under consideration. Sendai Subway’s new Tozai Line will be the 7th such line in Japan, and the 18th such line in the world.

Sendai’s project is one of seven SkyTrain technology projects concurrently under construction around the world – the other projects are in Vancouver (Evergreen Line), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Kelana Jaya Line extension), Guangzhou, China (Metro Line 4 & 6 extensions) and Beijing, China (Airport Express west and north extensions).

See also: List of Linear Induction Motor Rapid Transit Systems

A recent SkyTrain-tech project, announced for the island of Okinawa, Japan, will be the largest one-time SkyTrain technology project in the world at 69km long.

Okinawa, Japan declares SkyTrain technology for 69km urban and intercity railway

Okinawa, Japan declares SkyTrain technology for 69km urban and intercity railway

Okinawa Railway System - Urban elevated railway station concept

As you may recall (or not, since I have yet to actually discuss anything Japan-related on this blog!), I departed Metro Vancouver in September of this year to pursue a scholarship-supported abroad studies program in Kyushu, Japan. My studies include a transportation research component – and through this, I initially received word that Okinawa would use linear motor cars on its inaugural island railway – a.k.a. “SkyTrain technology”.

As of this week, a number of online articles in Japanese have now surfaced, revealing project details and effectively confirming SkyTrain technology for Okinawa’s first major rapid transit line.

News release: 知事選で高まる気運 リニアモーターを使った沖縄の「普通鉄道」建設構想とは (English: Election momentum growing: plan outlined for Okinawa’s linear motor railway)
Translated (Google): [LINK]

This means that linear motors and reaction rails (locally termed in Vancouver as “SkyTrain technology”) will be used to propel trains on the island. Japan is one of the world countries that has recognized the benefits of SkyTrain technology, with 7 lines running or already under construction in 6 cities. Okinawa’s railway will be the 8th such line in Japan, and the 19th such line in the world.

See also: List of Linear Induction Motor Rapid Transit Systems

The news release linked above emphasizes that every candidate for prefectural governor (there is an election coming up in Okinawa!) is supporting the proposed rapid transit line. This is because the line will be 30% cheaper to ride end-to-end than the current express bus service, due to efficiencies for the island’s transit operator. It is expected to cut travel time across the island in half, to 58 minutes from the current 1 hour and 45 minutes by rapid express bus.

There will be two primary segments. The 20km segment between Okinawa City and Naha Airport will feature an urban metro-style service. Trains will initially run every 5 minutes during peak hours, and every 12 minutes off-peak. The 49km segment between Okinawa City and Naga City will be the world’s first intercity railway using SkyTrain technology. Trains will initially arrive every 15 minutes during peak hours and every 20 minutes off-peak.

Map of proposed 69km SkyTrain-type railway in Okinawa
Map of Okinawa’s 69km SkyTrain technology railway

The line will initially use 4-car trains, with shorter 12m long cars – similar to Vancouver SkyTrain’s Mark I vehicles. They will be low-height vehicles capable of running through smaller tunnels.

最高速度は100km/hが目標とされており、長さ12mの車両の4両編成が考えられています。1両あたりの長さが約15.7mである長堀鶴見緑地線の車両が、4両編成で定員が380人なので、12m×4両では単純計算で290人程度の定員があることになります

English: Trains will have a maximum speed of 100km/h, and the government has considered using 12m length cars. For comparison, trains on Osaka’s Nagahori Tsurumi-Ryokuchi line are 15.7m long. Those trains carry 380 people, so we imply that Okinawa’s trains will carry 290 people between the 4 cars.

In order to navigate the island’s challenging terrain, 70% of the proposed line will be in a tunnel, which means the linear motor trains – which have lower train heights and require smaller tunnel diameters – will save the local government billions of dollars in tunneling costs. A standard rotary propulsion railway would have also likely required more tunnels, given linear motor vehicles are capable of handling steeper slopes at higher speeds, avoiding the need for tunnels and landscaping in certain segments.

Case study

With further searching, I was able to uncover a case study document that included conceptual art for the proposed rail line:

LINK: 新たな公共交通システム導入促進検討業務 – 報 告 書 – 概 要 版 – 沖 縄 県 (English: New public transit system promotional business case – Executive Summary – Okinawa Prefecture)

According to the study, the SkyTrain-type rapid transit line was initially compared on a level playing field with a variety of other transit options – including Tram-Train – a form of ground-level Light Rail Transit (LRT), and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) – and won against these options, found to be the most worthwhile investment as it would generate the most travel time benefits for local citizens.

The linear motor transit systems examined in the study included the Bombardier ART (SkyTrain) systems in New York and Beijing.

About Okinawa

A map of Okinawa prefecture - from Wikimedia Commons, license CC-BY-SA
A map of Okinawa prefecture – from Wikimedia Commons, license CC-BY-SA

Okinawa, a well-populated and internationally well-known island south of the 4 main Japanese islands, is contrary to the rest of the country in that it has yet to see any serious developments in rail transit. There is a 12.8km monorail, called Yui Rail, in the main city (Naha), but that is it – the rest of the population must take buses or drive automobiles to travel longer distances.

The new railway will significantly improve transit travel times and create a new option to combat rising congestion levels on the Okinawa Expressway, a major toll road crossing the island. The entire railway will be 69km long, which will immediately make it the third longest SkyTrain-technology rail system in the world upon completion. Vancouver’s SkyTrain system (which will grow with the completion of the Evergreen Line) and Guangzhou, China (where three SkyTrain technology lines cover 100km of track) are the only longer systems.

Japan: A sustainability shift example for the world

Japan: A sustainability shift example for the world
Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons
Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

I love Japan, and I find that there is so much about it in its people’s culture, traditions and ways of thinking that the rest of the world should consider following, to solve problems and make progress in a world of uncertainty and in a world that needs some change.

The Japan I see to day is a great place that triumphs high fuel efficiency in vehicles, compactness and efficiency, and electrified rail lines as the primary, most affordable and most widely used form of transportation. I actually never knew, however, that it was on the verge of today’s China at one point in the past – encouraging middle-class citizens onto cars and creating wastelands of its natural environments, and creating pollution and illness in cities as a result. So, when I read this, it brought me great surprise to think that today’s Japan could not have been today’s Japan with the presence of leadership and a voice in the opposition parties, even as they never came to power.

From the International Herald Tribune Global Opinion’s Latitude:

Japan’s Pollution Diet

By ALEXANDRA HARNEY

TOKYO — Seeing Beijing wreathed in smog throughout the winter, it has been hard not to worry about the costs of China’s rapid economic growth. As Jon Stewart pointed out on The Daily Show: Can’t a country capable of lifting hundreds of millions of people out of poverty find a way to keep its own capital safe for habitation?

Japan rightly prides itself on blue skies, Prius taxis and mandatory recycling.

Five decades ago, people were asking similar questions about Japan. Even as the world marveled at the country’s 10 percent annual growth, alarm was growing over air pollution in several cities. Emissions of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide tripled during the 1960s. Japan became known for pollution-related illnesses: Yokkaichi asthma, Minamata disease (mercury poisoning) — both named after the cities where they first appeared — and cadmium poisoning, known as itai-itai, or “ouch-ouch,” because of the excruciating bone pain it caused.

Today, Japanese cities are among the world’s least polluted, according to the World Health Organization. Japan’s environmental record is hardly spotless, but the country rightly prides itself on blue skies, Prius taxis and mandatory recycling. What’s more, it managed to clean up without sacrificing growth by investing in pollution-control technologies and giving local governments leeway to tighten standards beyond national requirements.

It wasn’t easy. The Liberal Democratic Party, which governed Japan almost continuously from 1955 to 2009 and returned to power in December, wasn’t proactive in cleaning up the country’s air and water. That’s partly because until the mid-1990s Japan’s electoral system incited politicians to pander to the interests of business. With candidates from the same party required to also run against one another, most politicians stood little chance of distinguishing themselves on policy and so tried to secure votes by courting business and industry associations.

It was only when citizens’ movements, which grew out of protests against the 1960 U.S.-Japan Security Treaty and the Vietnam War, got the attention of opposition parties in the 1960s and early 1970s that the government was forced to confront pollution. “I saw the government and L.D.P. as responding just enough, just in time, when the pressure got strong enough that they could defuse the opposition and stay in power,” said Timothy George, a professor at the University of Rhode Island and the author of a book on Minamata disease.

The first result was a blizzard of laws — 14 passed at once — in what became known as the Pollution Diet of 1970. Air pollution fell dramatically in the years that followed.

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TRAILER: "The Garden of Words" by Makoto Shinkai

TRAILER: "The Garden of Words" by Makoto Shinkai

This trailer is for an upcoming movie that is called 『言の葉の庭』 (Itonoha no ni wa) or “The Garden of Words” in English, by reknowned director and artist Makoto Shinkai and his studio, CoMix Wave films. As usual, as with his movies, it looks absolutely amazing – and, from my understanding of their speaking, looks like it will contain a very complicated and engaging story.

The movie is expected to come out in Japan later this year, and a North America release date is currently uncertain. The only thing I can do is sit back and wait for any North American release or the blu-ray/DVD release, while people I know in Japan may be able to already see it – and perhaps tell me about it.

Awesome hand drawn Japan rail map

Awesome hand drawn Japan rail map

I love Japan’s intricate rail system, and these hand-drawn maps of Japan’s entire rail system showcase incredible passion, and tell me that the guy who drew them really knows his way around rail transit in Japan and would probably be an awesome person to talk to. It’s also fun to look at the way he drew the maps with only pens and his own hands – no computer-aided tools.

Check out the pictures on Flickr! [LINK] the full map is so big that it’s only available for download if you ask.

Photos: CC-BY, some rights reserved by Wyton Chu

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