SkyTrain technology declared for 60km outer belt metro in Tokyo

SkyTrain technology declared for 60km outer belt metro in Tokyo

“SkyTrain technology” (linear motor propulsion, with automated operation) has been declared for a major investment in rail rapid transit in the outer boroughs of the city of Tokyo, Japan – the world’s largest metropolitan area with over 38 million people residing.

Map: Proposed "Metro 7" and "Eight Liner" rapid transit line circling outer Tokyo. The Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation wants to use SkyTrain technology to reduce the project costs of this transit line.
Map: Proposed “Metro 7” and “Eight Liner” rapid transit line circling outer Tokyo, which will run under the city’s 7th and 8th Ring Roads. The Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation wants to use SkyTrain technology to reduce the project costs of this transit line.

The proposed lines – initially two separate projects codenamed “Metro Seven” and “Eight Liner” – will be merged into a single project that is 59.7km long, with 42 stations.

There is an additional 13.7km extension to Tokyo’s Haneda Airport (bringing the total project length to a whooping 73.4km) under consideration. It has not been finalized as part of this proposal and is pending further study, likely given that other Haneda-oriented rail projects are currently being considered by other operators.

Case study

I was given a link to a study on the Itabashi ward website, which concluded that the use of SkyTrain technology would significantly save costs and improve the project business case, due to significant reductions in tunneling and land acquisition costs.

LINK: 平成25年 – 度区部周辺部環状公共交通に係る調査 – 概報告
English: 2013 Fiscal –Outer Ward Circumferential Public Transit Study – Summary Report

The Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation (Toei) has proposed to build and operate the subway line with public funds, a rarity in a country where most major railways are built and operated by private companies.

Linear Motors Save Costs

The new metro line in Tokyo will use a new specification called “Smart Linear Metro“, which is identical to the 69km SkyTrain technology railway line proposed in Okinawa. Short, 12m long cars – similar to Vancouver’s Mark I SkyTrain vehicles – will enable a further reduction in tunnelling height, curve radius and land costs compared to 16m long “standard linear metro” cars already in use in Fukuoka, Yokohama, Kobe and other cities, which themselves allow for smaller tunnels than standard 20m rotary propulsion metro cars. To enable the high carrying capacity required for a Tokyo metro line, multiple-car, articluated units will be used.

Through the reduction in tunnelling and land acquisition costs – made possible by the key advantages of linear motor propulsion in lower floor heights and tighter curve radii – the use of SkyTrain technology is estimated to save taxpayers the equivalent of $300 million Canadian dollars.

Slides from the case study (tap to enlarge):

Trains will initially operate every 3 minutes during peak times on the higher-demand western segment, whereas a 5 minute frequency will be used on the eastern segment.

Popular in Japan

Japan is one of the world countries that has recognized the benefits of SkyTrain technology and pushes a widespread application of SkyTrain technology in every new railway project. There are now 9 lines in 6 cities running, under construction or under consideration. The new circumferential line will be the 9th such line in Japan, and the 20th such line in the world.

The Toei Oedo subway has been operating since 1991, and had one extension in 2001.
The Toei Oedo subway has been operating since 1991 and is one of the busiest Tokyo subway lines.

Toei has previously demonstrated SkyTrain technology successfully on the Toei Oedo Line, a major Tokyo subway line with a ridership of over 850,000 passengers daily. The Oedo Line has operated successfully for over 23 years. It’s no surprise that with this record, Toei would want to build another such line.

See also: List of Linear Induction Motor Rapid Transit Systems

New SkyTrain technology metro in Sendai, Japan opens 2015

New SkyTrain technology metro in Sendai, Japan opens 2015
sendai-map
Sendai Subway map showing the new Tozai Line (east-west line in blue)

A brand new rail rapid transit line in Sendai, Japan – which is using linear induction motor propulsion technology (“SkyTrain technology”) – is on track to open next year (2015), with final construction activities and train testing underway. The Tozai Line will be 14km long, and feature a mix of underground and elevated sections.

The use of SkyTrain technology is now confirmed by more than a concept photo, as the linear-motor rolling stock has arrived and pictures have surfaced showing linear motors on the subway track. These initial trains have passed their testing, keeping the line on-track to open exactly one year from now on December 6, 2015.

A new video featuring the rail transit project, showing the unveiling of the SkyTrain-tech rolling stock and construction progress, was recently updated to YouTube. As part of these unveilings, school children were allowed to be a part of the event, inspiring a future generation of transit riders.

New construction photos of the Sendai Subway’s Tozai Line has recently hit the internet. The photos below were posted on the official project Facebook page:

The Tozai Line was originally scheduled to open much earlier, but construction was delayed by the devastating 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami, which heavily damaged much of the city. The new subway line will therefore be part of the revitalization movement for Sendai City.

Japan is one of the world countries that has recognized the benefits of SkyTrain technology and pushes a widespread application of SkyTrain technology in every new railway project. There are now 8 lines in 6 cities running, under construction or under consideration. Sendai Subway’s new Tozai Line will be the 7th such line in Japan, and the 18th such line in the world.

Sendai’s project is one of seven SkyTrain technology projects concurrently under construction around the world – the other projects are in Vancouver (Evergreen Line), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Kelana Jaya Line extension), Guangzhou, China (Metro Line 4 & 6 extensions) and Beijing, China (Airport Express west and north extensions).

See also: List of Linear Induction Motor Rapid Transit Systems

A recent SkyTrain-tech project, announced for the island of Okinawa, Japan, will be the largest one-time SkyTrain technology project in the world at 69km long.

Okinawa, Japan declares SkyTrain technology for 69km urban and intercity railway

Okinawa, Japan declares SkyTrain technology for 69km urban and intercity railway

Okinawa Railway System - Urban elevated railway station concept

As you may recall (or not, since I have yet to actually discuss anything Japan-related on this blog!), I departed Metro Vancouver in September of this year to pursue a scholarship-supported abroad studies program in Kyushu, Japan. My studies include a transportation research component – and through this, I initially received word that Okinawa would use linear motor cars on its inaugural island railway – a.k.a. “SkyTrain technology”.

As of this week, a number of online articles in Japanese have now surfaced, revealing project details and effectively confirming SkyTrain technology for Okinawa’s first major rapid transit line.

News release: 知事選で高まる気運 リニアモーターを使った沖縄の「普通鉄道」建設構想とは (English: Election momentum growing: plan outlined for Okinawa’s linear motor railway)
Translated (Google): [LINK]

This means that linear motors and reaction rails (locally termed in Vancouver as “SkyTrain technology”) will be used to propel trains on the island. Japan is one of the world countries that has recognized the benefits of SkyTrain technology, with 7 lines running or already under construction in 6 cities. Okinawa’s railway will be the 8th such line in Japan, and the 19th such line in the world.

See also: List of Linear Induction Motor Rapid Transit Systems

The news release linked above emphasizes that every candidate for prefectural governor (there is an election coming up in Okinawa!) is supporting the proposed rapid transit line. This is because the line will be 30% cheaper to ride end-to-end than the current express bus service, due to efficiencies for the island’s transit operator. It is expected to cut travel time across the island in half, to 58 minutes from the current 1 hour and 45 minutes by rapid express bus.

There will be two primary segments. The 20km segment between Okinawa City and Naha Airport will feature an urban metro-style service. Trains will initially run every 5 minutes during peak hours, and every 12 minutes off-peak. The 49km segment between Okinawa City and Naga City will be the world’s first intercity railway using SkyTrain technology. Trains will initially arrive every 15 minutes during peak hours and every 20 minutes off-peak.

Map of proposed 69km SkyTrain-type railway in Okinawa
Map of Okinawa’s 69km SkyTrain technology railway

The line will initially use 4-car trains, with shorter 12m long cars – similar to Vancouver SkyTrain’s Mark I vehicles. They will be low-height vehicles capable of running through smaller tunnels.

最高速度は100km/hが目標とされており、長さ12mの車両の4両編成が考えられています。1両あたりの長さが約15.7mである長堀鶴見緑地線の車両が、4両編成で定員が380人なので、12m×4両では単純計算で290人程度の定員があることになります

English: Trains will have a maximum speed of 100km/h, and the government has considered using 12m length cars. For comparison, trains on Osaka’s Nagahori Tsurumi-Ryokuchi line are 15.7m long. Those trains carry 380 people, so we imply that Okinawa’s trains will carry 290 people between the 4 cars.

In order to navigate the island’s challenging terrain, 70% of the proposed line will be in a tunnel, which means the linear motor trains – which have lower train heights and require smaller tunnel diameters – will save the local government billions of dollars in tunneling costs. A standard rotary propulsion railway would have also likely required more tunnels, given linear motor vehicles are capable of handling steeper slopes at higher speeds, avoiding the need for tunnels and landscaping in certain segments.

Case study

With further searching, I was able to uncover a case study document that included conceptual art for the proposed rail line:

LINK: 新たな公共交通システム導入促進検討業務 – 報 告 書 – 概 要 版 – 沖 縄 県 (English: New public transit system promotional business case – Executive Summary – Okinawa Prefecture)

According to the study, the SkyTrain-type rapid transit line was initially compared on a level playing field with a variety of other transit options – including Tram-Train – a form of ground-level Light Rail Transit (LRT), and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) – and won against these options, found to be the most worthwhile investment as it would generate the most travel time benefits for local citizens.

The linear motor transit systems examined in the study included the Bombardier ART (SkyTrain) systems in New York and Beijing.

About Okinawa

A map of Okinawa prefecture - from Wikimedia Commons, license CC-BY-SA
A map of Okinawa prefecture – from Wikimedia Commons, license CC-BY-SA

Okinawa, a well-populated and internationally well-known island south of the 4 main Japanese islands, is contrary to the rest of the country in that it has yet to see any serious developments in rail transit. There is a 12.8km monorail, called Yui Rail, in the main city (Naha), but that is it – the rest of the population must take buses or drive automobiles to travel longer distances.

The new railway will significantly improve transit travel times and create a new option to combat rising congestion levels on the Okinawa Expressway, a major toll road crossing the island. The entire railway will be 69km long, which will immediately make it the third longest SkyTrain-technology rail system in the world upon completion. Vancouver’s SkyTrain system (which will grow with the completion of the Evergreen Line) and Guangzhou, China (where three SkyTrain technology lines cover 100km of track) are the only longer systems.

Kuala Lumpur: New 36km SkyTrain line to complement extension

Kuala Lumpur: New 36km SkyTrain line to complement extension

UPDATE – 11th April 2015: SkyTrain technology has been CONFIRMED for the proposed Klang Valley Line.

Today I bring you news from Malaysia! A news release from a few days ago reveals details of a new 36km SkyTrain line to complement an already under-construction 17km extension of the Kelana Jaya line are beginning to surface. The new extension would run from a proposed new transit hub, intersect the Kelana Jaya Line, and then travel through Shah Alam to a terminus at Klang – a city of close to 850,000 people situated 32km west of Kuala Lumpur.

The original regional transportation plan finalized in 2011 [CLICK HERE] proposed that this line would be constructed after 2030; however, a re-examination of the business case in June 2013 has resulted in the project being pushed up to the pre-2020 timeframe. An even newer study focusing specifically on the line details itself has suggested that there are immediate benefits to reap – and with that, the line is now a top priority investment. Construction is likely to begin on the new SkyTrain extension at the beginning of next year, where it will parallel the ongoing extension of the Kelana Jaya Line.

See Also: Greater KL/Klang Valley Urban Rail Development Plan – June 2013 [PDF]

The new plan helps show that the technology we use in SkyTrain is becoming a serious rail rapid transit option for cities worldwide, with expansions of SkyTrain-type lines now well under way in multiple cities – including here in Vancouver, there in Kuala Lumpur, in Sendai, Japan and in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Additional details

The “Shah Alam LRT” will be the second SkyTrain-type line in Kuala Lumpur (or the third if the Kelana Jaya Line extension is considered a separate line). The new line will connect directly to the Kelana Jaya Line and may offer a continuous service onto the line. With its completion, Kuala Lumpur’s RapidRail system will eclipse the SkyTrain system in the amount of in-service linear motor trackage, spanning a distance of 82km before 2020 – whereas SkyTrain (lines using linear induction motor tech) will span just 63km after the completion of the Evergreen Line. This will make Kuala Lumpur’s system the second longest linear motor rapid transit system in the world, after the 100km Guangzhou Metro system.

See also: List of Linear Induction Motor rapid transit systems

The new “Shah Alam LRT” line will complement an already in-service commuter rail transit line, similar to how the Evergreen Line will complement the non-stop West Coast Express service in the tri-cities. The rapid transit stock for the new line can be expected to be built by either Bombardier or CSR-Zhuzhou. Bombardier has been a major supplier for the rapid transit cars on the Kelana Jaya Line (ART 200/Mark II trains), while CSR-Zhuzhou has supplied standard rotary-motor rapid transit cars for the Ampang Line (but is also a major supplier of linear motor cars for the Guangzhou Metro system).

About Kuala Lumpur’s “Rapid Rail” system

Kuala Lumpur's integrated rail system. The Kelana Jaya line is in magenta.
Kuala Lumpur’s integrated rail system. The Kelana Jaya line is in magenta.

In case you weren’t initially aware, Kuala Lumpur’s “Rapid Rail” network is like a clone of our SkyTrain system overseas: the system is composed of several grade-separated, automated (driverless) rapid transit lines, many of which use the same linear induction motor propulsion technology and Bombardier Mark II vehicles used on SkyTrain here in Vancouver. The Ampang Line, the first rapid transit line using standard rotary motor technology, was opened in 1996 as the first rapid transit rail line in Kuala Lumpur. This was followed by the 1998 opening of the Kelana Jaya Line, the fully automated linear-motor type line that looks and works exactly like our SkyTrain system. The 29km Kelana Jaya Line is built with both overhead sections and bored tunnel sections through the city core. It is the busiest and most popular rapid transit line in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur with 160,000 riders daily [1], and was for a long time the only rapid transit service in the Klang Valley metropolis that broke even (revenues paid for operations costs) until the Ampang Line, which had historically fallen a few thousand riders short from breaking even [1][2], was equipped with the Thales SelTrac system to itself become fully automated (driverless) [3]. Both lines are currently receiving extensions that are due to open at around the same year the Evergreen Line is opened here in Vanouver. The extensions are shown in the above map (note the unnamed stations near the bottom). Kuala Lumpur’s Rapid Rail system has been immensely successful since its opening, being major money generators for the regional rapid transit system and the biggest drivers of ridership and high-density development. SkyTrain technology has helped the fares on RapidKL’s rapid transit lines remain completely unchanged for 10 years [4], and continue to remain the same (so far) through power tariff increases for the operating company, mainly because of increasing ridership [5]. The rapid transit lines are considered the “key revenue-generator contributor” for Prasarana, the regional transportation authority if the Klang Valley [6]

Sources/footnotes
  1. Passenger numbers from Urban Rail Development Study, page 19 [LINK]
  2. The Ampang Line breaks even at 170,000 riders daily, according to Malaysian Business (article “Red Flags” from 16 June, 2000 issue – not available online) – most recent recorded ridership was 141,000 daily
  3. The Kelana Jaya Line has been automated from start of service; the Ampang Line was refitted with the Thales SelTrac system in 2012 [SEE HERE]
  4. LRT, Monorail fares to go up next year – Astro Awani report [LINK]
  5. Prasarana Power Cost Up 17% since Jan 1 – The Edge Malaysia [LINK]
  6. Description page on Rapid Rail Sdn Bhd [LINK]
Featured image: Kelana Jaya Line train approaches station. CC-BY Flickr - @withcuriosity
Featured image: Kelana Jaya Line train approaches station. CC-BY Flickr – @withcuriosity

Guangzhou opens world's newest SkyTrain technology line

Guangzhou opens world's newest SkyTrain technology line

I recently updated my List of Linear Induction Motor rapid transit systems [LINK] list to reflect the opening of Guangzhou Metro’s Line 6 – the world’s newest “SkyTrain technology” line, adding 25km of linear motor trackage to Guangzhou’s Metro system. The opening was met with a celebration last week.

SEE LINK: Guangzhou Metro Line 6 opened on December 28

SEE NEWS VIDEO (in Chinese):

The new line is expected to carry 700,000 passengers daily (about twice as much as our SkyTrain system carries) in the first month – making it one of the world’s busiest applications of SkyTrain technology on a rapid transit line. Guangzhou now has 100km of active linear motor rapid transit track – twice the length that Vancouver has on our SkyTrain system. Line 6 has both above-ground sections and tunnel sections; the latter in particular takes advantage of the low-height of linear motor cars, which enables smaller tunnels and cost savings.

Line 6 is very unique among the Guangzhou Metro Lines in that it has the most stations, the most passenger amenities, and offers the most frequent service of any Guangzhou Metro line. Basically, Guangzhou has chosen to build the most important subway line in the city with SkyTrain technology.

Guangzhou Metro ordered almost 200 linear motor rapid transit cars from Itochu and China’s CSR Sifang for Line 6. [SEE LINK]

A recent Vancouver Sun piece [LINK HERE] that I’m planning to send commentary on took note on the apparent obsolescence of “25-year-old SkyTrain technology”. The opening of this new line in Guangzhou, which is a high-capacity application, shows that this is far from true. In fact, there’s new research going on in India [LINK] at the Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi to make it the fourth country to offer a “SkyTrain technology” product – after Canada, Japan and China.

List of Linear Induction Motor train lines

A concise list of all current and future rapid transit lines using linear induction motor propulsion technology. There are over 20 in-service or proposed systems across 15 cities/metro areas.

Less significant installations (i.e. non-urban rail) are not included. The list is sorted by system length.

Guangzhou Metro

Guangzhou Metro Line 5

System length: 260.3km (99.9km linear motor track) – Future 130km linear motor track
Linear propulsion rolling stock:
– CSR-Sifang/ITOCHU EMU, Bombardier BM-300 bogies (Line 4, 120 cars in 4-car service)
– CSR-Sifang/ITOCHU EMU, Bombardier BM-300 bogies (Line 5, 180 cars in 6-car service)
– CSR-Sifang/ITOCHU EMU, SDB-LIM bogies by CSR-Sifang (Line 5, 192 cars in 6-car service)
– CSR-Sifang /ITOCHU EMU, Bombardier FLEXX Metro 2000 bogies (Line 6, 196 cars in 4-car service)
Systems with LIM propulsion:
– Line 4 (2005) 43.7km / daily ridership: 300,070
– Line 5 (2009) 31.9km / daily ridership: 985,500
Line 6 (2013) 24.3km / daily ridership: 612,300
– Line 4 south ext. (opening 2016) 12.5km
Line 6 east ext. (opening 2016) 17.6km
Train control: Automated (SIEMENS system) with backup driver

Vancouver SkyTrain

2-car SkyTrain approaches Brentwood Station on the Millennium Line

System length: 68.6km (49km linear motor track) – Future 61km linear motor track
Linear propulsion rolling stock:
– ICTS Mark I (150 cars, 75 “married pairs”)
– Bombardier ART 200 (108 cars, 54 “married pairs”)
– Bombardier INNOVIA Metro 300 (28 cars, 7 4-car consists)
Systems with LIM propulsion:
Expo Line (1986) 28.9km
– Millennium Line (2002) 20.1km
Evergreen Extension (opens 2017) 11km
Train control: Fully automated (Thales SELTRAC)

Okinawa Island Railway

Okinawa Railway System - Urban elevated railway station concept

System length: 69km
Announced: November 2014
Linear propulsion rolling stock:
– FUTURE: 4-car consists
Train control: Unannounced automated system

Tokyo Metro and Toei Subway

Toei Oedo Subway

System length: 109.1km (40.7km linear motor track)
Linear propulsion rolling stock:
– Nippon Sharyo/Hitachi 12-000 series EMU (440 cars, 55 8-car consists)
– Kawasaki Heavy Industries 12-600 series EMU
Systems with LIM propulsion:
Toei Subway Ōedo Line (1991) 40.7km; daily ridership: 795,461
Metro 7/Eight Liner (FUTURE) 59.7km
Train control: Automated with backup driver

RapidKL Rail (Kuala Lumpur)

Kelana Jaya Line

System length: 64.6km (29km linear motor track) – Future 82km linear motor track
Linear propulsion rolling stock:
– Bombardier ART 200 (70 cars, 35 “married pairs”)
– Bombardier ART 200 order 2 (140 cars, 35 4-car consists)
– Bombardier INNOVIA Metro 300 (56 cars, 14 4-car consists)
Systems with LIM propulsion:
Kelana Jaya Line (1998) 29km (17km extension opening June 30, 2016)
“LRT3” Klang Valley Line (UNDER CONSTRUCTION; 2020) 36km
Train control: Fully automated (Thales SELTRAC)

Beijing Subway

Beijing Airport Express

System length: 456km (28.1km linear motor track)
Linear propulsion rolling stock:
– Bombardier/Changchun Railway Vehicles ART 200 (40 cars, 10 “Married pairs”)
Systems with LIM propulsion:
– Airport Express (2008) 28.1km
Train control: Automated with backup driver (Alstom CBTC)

Osaka Municipal Subway

Osaka Subway LIM rolling stock

System length: 129.9km (26.9km linear motor track)
Linear propulsion rolling stock:
– Kawasaki/Kinki Sharyo 70 series EMU
– Kawasaki/Kinki Sharyo 80 series EMU
Systems with LIM propulsion:
– Nagahori Tsurumi-ryokuchi Line (1990) 15km
– Imazatosuji Line (2006) 11.9km
Train control: Automated with backup driver

EverLine Rapid Transit System (Yongin, Korea)

Yongin EverLine

System length: 18.143km
Linear propulsion rolling stock:
– Bombardier ART 200 (30 cars)
Train control: Fully automated (Bombardier CityFLO 650)

Sendai Subway

Crews oversee a train on powered tracks with linear motor reaction rails installed.

System length: 28.7 km (14 km linear motor track)
Linear propulsion rolling stock:
– Kinki Sharyo 2000 series EMU (60 cars, 15 consists)
Systems with LIM propulsion:
Tozai Line (OPENED Dec 6, 2015) 13.9km

Yokohama Municipal Subway

Yokohama Subway LIM train

System length: 53.4km (13km linear motor track)
Linear propulsion rolling stock:
– Kawasaki 10000 series EMU
Lines with LIM Propulsion:
– Green Line (2008) 13km
Train control: Automated with backup driver

Fukuoka City Subway

Fukuoka Subway

System length: 29.8km (12km linear motor track)
Linear propulsion rolling stock:

– Hitachi 3000 series EMU (68 cars, 17 consists)
Systems with LIM Propulsion:
– Nanakuma Line (2005) 12km (1.6km extension to Hakata opening 2020)
Train control: Automated with attendant

AirTrain JFK (New York)

AirTrain JFK

System length: 13km
Linear propulsion rolling stock:
– Bombardier ART 200 (32 cars)
Systems with LIM Propulsion:
– Current AirTrain system (2002) 13km
Lower Manhattan – Jamaica/JFK Transportation Project via Long Island Rail Road track-sharing (FUTURE)
Train control: Fully automated (Thales SELTRAC)

Kobe Municipal Subway

Kobe Subway

System length: 40.4km (7.9km linear motor track)
Linear propulsion rolling stock:
– 5000 series EMU
Systems with LIM propulsion:
– Kaigan Line (2001) 7.9km
Train control: Automated with backup driver

Toronto Subway and RT

Scarborough RT

System length: 68.3km (6.4km linear motor track)
Linear propulsion rolling stock:
– ICTS Mark I (62 cars, 31 “married pairs”)
Systems with LIM Propulsion:
– Scarborough RT (1985) 6.4km
Train control: Driver-controlled with partial automation

Detroit People Mover

detroit20people20mover

System length: 4.7km
Linear propulsion rolling stock:
– ICTS Mark I (12 cars, 6 “married pairs”)
Train control: Fully automated (Thales SELTRAC)